Assalamualaikum Dato’. I want to ask is it enough and considered clean and pure if I use baby wipes to clean my baby after he defecates or urinates? Thank you.
Alhamdulillah, praise and thanks to Allah for the many countless blessings He has blessed us all with. Blessings and salutations to the Prophet Muhammad PBUH, his wives, his family, companions and all those that follow his teachings to the day of judgement.
Islam emphasizes cleanliness and purification. Purification is a part of faith (iman) as stated in a hadith from Abu Malik al-Asy’ari RA, where the Prophet PBUH said:
الطُّهُورُ شَطْرُ الإِيمَانِ
"Purity is half of iman (faith).”
Sahih Muslim (223)
Divisions of Najis
Najis is divided into three parts, namely Mukhaffafah (minor), Mutawassitoh (moderate) and Mughallazoh (major) najis.
- Mughallazah najis are dog and swine and whatever that comes from them.
- Mukhaffafah najis are the urine of a baby boy who are not more than two years of age and only feed from the milk of his mother.
- Mutawassitoh najis are the najis other than dog, swine and the urine of a baby boy of not more than two years of age who only feeds from the milk of his mother. Examples of Mutawassitoh najis are human urine, animal droppings and blood.
(See al-Fiqh al-Manhaji 1/40-41)
Method of Purification for a Baby
In this matter, scholars have set several guidelines as to how to clean and purify a baby. Regarding the najis of a baby other than Mukhaffafah najis (urine of a baby boy of not more than two years of age who only feeds from the milk of his mother), it is categorized under Mutawassitoh najis.
Thus, the purification process between these two types of najis is different from each other. This is stated by Habib Hasan bin Ahmad al-Kaf in his book:
- Mukhaffafah najis is purified by only sprinkling some water (the water used must be more than the quantity of najis) on it and removing it (in terms of physical appearance and attribute).
- Mutawassitoh najis is cleansed and purified by washing it using water until the colour, smell and traces of it is removed.
(See al-Taqrirat al-Sadidah, 135)
If there is a small quantity of water, then it must be poured on the najis. This is explained by Syeikh Ibrahim al-Baijuri in his hasyiah:
“The condition of purifying najis is by washing (pour water on it) the najis and not placing the najis on water.” (See Hasyiah Syeikh Ibrahim Baijuri, 1/199)
The same is stated by Dr Wahbah Zuhaili in his book:
“The urine of a baby which is categorized as Mutawassitoh najis, must be washed by pouring water on the place that come in contact with the najis.” (See al-Fiqh al-Islami wa Adillatuhu, 1/311)
“According to the opinion of Imam al-Syafie to pour water and let it flow washing the najis from the place the najis come in contact with.” (See al-Fiqh al-Islami wa Adillatuhu, 1/337)
Habib Hasan bin Ahmad al-Kaf stated:
“The method of purifying it (the najis) is by washing it with flowing water.” (See al-Taqrirat al-Sadidah, 135)
The Conditions for Water Used for Purification
The water used for purification must be from Mutlak water; of which is explained as:
“The water itself is pure and could purify others and its usage is not makruh (undesirable)” (See Hasyiah Syeikh Ibrahim Baijuri, 1/57)
In al-Fiqh al-Manhaji, mutlak water is defined as the following:
“Water of which retained its natural state and attributes as created by Allah SWT. And its attributes are unchanged due to it being exposed for a long time, resulting in sedimentation of soil and moss due to the water being stagnant for a long period.” (See al-Fiqh al-Manhaji, 1/31)
Furthermore, regarding the attributes of musta’mal and mutaghayyir water (mutlak water that has changed due to other factors such as it being mixed with rose water or soap) it can no longer purify najis. This is stated by Syeikh Ibrahim al-Baijuri:
“Musta’mal and mutaghayyir water are pure but could not purify others.” (See Hasyiah Syeikh Ibrahim al-Baijuri, 1/61)
Habib Hasan bin Ahmad al-Kaf said:
“Pure water that cannot purify others is musta’mal water.” (See al-Taqrirat al-Sadidah,59)
Purification Using Other than Water
If there is a limited amount of water or there is no water supply, it is permissible to use any coarse solids such as rocks, dry tissue, leaves and others. Among the conditions of objects other than water for the purification process are:
- First, the object itself must be pure from najis. If someone performs istinjak (purification process after urination or defecation) using something which is najis, then he must purify himself again using water.
- Second, the object must be dry and rough. Hence, it is invalid to use anything that is smooth and wet.
- Third, the object must not be of something that is venerated such as food, animal bones and others.
(See Raudah al-Tolibin al-Nawawi, 1/68-69)
Among the coarse and dry objects that can be used to replace water for istinjak is toilet paper. This is considering the fact that toilet paper is able to remove najis and clean human body parts. However, if one is able to get water for istinjak, then he should do so. The same goes if he is able to get both, where he is able to first remove the najis with coarse object then wash himself with water, then this is the prioritized way. (See Kasyifat al-Saja, 266)
Moreover, during purification, one must ensure that the najis does not dries, flow to other parts of the anus or penis or vagina for women. The najis should also not flow or come in contact to other parts or places. (See al-Fiqh al-Manhaji, 1/45-46)
Also see article: AL-KAFI #1215: IS IT VALID TO PERFORM ISTINJAK USING TOILET PAPER WHEN WATER IS UNAVAILABLE?
According to the above evidences and opinions of jurists, it can be concluded that the conditions for purification of mutawassitoh najis are:
- Using mutlak water
- The water must be washed off (flowed) the place of najis
- Smell, colour and traces of najis must be removed
- Do not use musta’mal and mutaghayyir water (changed water)
Baby wipes are wet tissue containing soap or scented with the purpose of removing impurities. Hence, according to the conditions set by syarak, it can only remove najis but does not purify the place where the najis comes in contact with.
However, it is permissible to use baby wipes to remove the impurities, then it is obligatory to wash it again using mutlak water to purify the najis of the baby.
As an example, if someone is performing tawaf while carrying a baby cleanse using baby wipes, then his tawaf is invalid for the baby is impure from najis and considered as one carrying najis. Thus, it is best to first remove the najis using baby wipes, then wash it using mutlak water to purify the najis in accordance with syarak. Afterwards, dry it using dry tissue or clean cloth.
On another hand, if there is limited water supply, one can purify oneself using dry tissue ensuring the following matters:
- The najis intended to be cleansed hasn’t dried up
- The najis hasn’t spread to other parts of the body when it is excreted
And if it does not fulfil the above conditions, then it is obligatory for him to purify himself using mutlak water.
May Allah SWT give us guidance to understand His religion and practise His commandments the best we could. Amin.