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Bayan Linnas Series 239


This article is an adaptation of the original Malay article titled "Bapa Kahwin Dengan Anak" by Muhammad Abdul Hadi bin Ismut.


Marriage is highly encouraged in religion and is thought to be built on the foundation of taqwa, which is the preservation of one's dignity and lineage. We can see that a good marriage will produce good human beings who will prosper this world, carry on with the continuity of the descendants of the ummah of the Prophet Muhammad SAW, maintain the honour of men and women in legitimate relationships, and perform duties of husband and wife, thus completing the family relationship according to Islam. This is consistent with Allah SWT's words.

وَمِنْ آيَاتِهِ أَنْ خَلَقَ لَكُم مِّنْ أَنفُسِكُمْ أَزْوَاجًا لِّتَسْكُنُوا إِلَيْهَا وَجَعَلَ بَيْنَكُم مَّوَدَّةً وَرَحْمَةً ۚ إِنَّ فِي ذَٰلِكَ لَآيَاتٍ لِّقَوْمٍ يَتَفَكَّرُونَ

Meaning: And it is among His signs that He has created for you wives from among yourselves, so that you may find tranquility in them, and He has created love and kindness between you. Surely in this there are signs for a people who reflect.                                                            

(Surah al-Rum: 21)

However, we can see today that there have been numerous collapses of the family institution, which have had a significant impact on society. On social media, a lawyer shared a story about a biological father and his daughter having sexual relations, which was unfortunately approved by his wife, the daughter's mother. In fact, the wife suggested that they both marry so that the child's lineage could be traced back to the father, and eventually, the mother and father were willing to divorce as a form of sacrifice for their daughter. They both married through a marriage syndicate run by foreigners in Malaysia. As a result, Bayan Linnas will discuss the issue of "Father Married His Own Daughter" from an Islamic perspective this time.



Among the legal requirements for marriage is that the marriage be free of any issues that could jeopardise the marriage's validity. A married couple, for example, is not their mahram due to lineage, breastfeeding, or marriage between two families. (Refer to al-Iqna 'fi Halli Alfaz Abi Syuja', 2/480-481).[1] The following is what the Qur'an says about mahram :

حُرِّمَتْ عَلَيْكُمْ أُمَّهَاتُكُمْ وَبَنَاتُكُمْ وَأَخَوَاتُكُمْ وَعَمَّاتُكُمْ وَخَالَاتُكُمْ وَبَنَاتُ الْأَخِ وَبَنَاتُ الْأُخْتِ وَأُمَّهَاتُكُمُ اللَّاتِي أَرْضَعْنَكُمْ وَأَخَوَاتُكُم مِّنَ الرَّضَاعَةِ وَأُمَّهَاتُ نِسَائِكُمْ وَرَبَائِبُكُمُ اللَّاتِي فِي حُجُورِكُم مِّن نِّسَائِكُمُ اللَّاتِي دَخَلْتُم بِهِنَّ فَإِن لَّمْ تَكُونُوا دَخَلْتُم بِهِنَّ فَلَا جُنَاحَ عَلَيْكُمْ وَحَلَائِلُ أَبْنَائِكُمُ الَّذِينَ مِنْ أَصْلَابِكُمْ وَأَن تَجْمَعُوا بَيْنَ الْأُخْتَيْنِ إِلَّا مَا قَدْ سَلَفَ ۗ إِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ غَفُورًا رَّحِيمًا

Meaning: It is prohibited for you [to marry] your mothers, your daughters, your sisters, your paternal and maternal aunts, your brother’s daughters, your sister’s daughters, your foster-mothers, your foster-sisters, your mothers-in-law, your step-daughters under your guardianship if you have consummated the marriage with their mothers – however if you have not consummated the marriage, it is not a sin [to marry them] – nor wives of your own sons, nor two sisters together, except for what happened in the past, for Allah is All-Forgiving, Most Merciful.                

(Surah al-Nisa’: 23)

A mahram is someone who is not allowed to marry or have sexual relations with. Marriage, according to scholars, is a contract that legalizes sexual intercourse; however, if a person has a mahram relationship with another person, it is forbidden to marry him or her, and it is also forbidden to have sexual intercourse with him or her.

The mahram relationship is formed as a result of blood ties, breastfeeding, or marriage between two families. Mothers, daughters, sisters, aunts, and nieces are among those who are barred from marrying because of blood ties. (Refer to Nihayah al-Mathlab, 12/222).[2]

As a result, it is clear that it is forbidden for a father to marry his daughter and those below him in his descendants' genealogy, such as his granddaughter, and so on.

This is clearly stated in the Quran, as well as in Act 303 of the Islamic Family Law (Federal Territories) Act 1984, Part II-Marriage; Section 9. Relationships prohibiting marriage. (1) No man or woman, as the case may be, shall, on the ground of consanguinity, marry -

(c) his daughter or her son and his granddaughter or her grandson and his or her descendants, how-low-so ever;[3]

Aside from that, it is also mentioned in Section 11 on void marriages, which states that a marriage is void unless all conditions necessary for its validity, according to Hukum Syara', are met.[4]


We can see from the case of 'Father Married His Own Daughter' that the father committed adultery with his own biological child. Marriage, however, cannot save such acts because Islamic law forbids marriage between mahram.

In fact, sexual intercourse as a result of an illegal marriage is considered adultery, especially as an act of incest. Such acts clearly violate the dignity of religion, causing harm to the lineage and resulting in the breakdown of family institutions. Adultery, according to Islam, is a major sin that Allah despises and causes significant harm to society, even more so when it occurs among mahram. According to Ibn Hajar al-Haitami, the most heinous adultery is committed with one's own family members. This is a very heinous act because a person is supposed to protect his own family members, but instead they are persecuted. (Refer: al-Zawajir ‘an Iqtiraf al-Kabair, 2/159).[5]

What's more frightening is that if such intercourse results in pregnancy, what happens to the child born from such a relationship? The child's status is the same as that of an adultery child, which he bequeaths to his mother and cannot be bequeathed to the man who had intercourse with his mother (Refer to al-Fiqh al-Islami wa Adillatuhu, 10/3).[6] This is based on the Prophet SAW’s words :

الولد للفراش وللعاهر الحجر

Meaning: (Nasab) The child belongs to the span (legal marriage). While there is no right for adulterers.

                                           Narrated by al-Bukhari (6749) and Muslim (1457)

Factors Contribute to Incest

Incest is caused by a lack of understanding about the boundaries of family relationships, such as when two male and female family members sit together in a secluded location and disregard religious prohibitions. This is stated by Imam al-Nawawi in reciting the hadith إِلَّا وَمَعَهَا ذُو مَحْرَمٍ said It is permissible to sit in pairs with fellow mahrams, and it is also permissible to look at them as long as it is done without malice. It is haram, however, if they appear to be in a state of orgasm (lustful desire). (Refer: al-Minhaj fi Syarh Sahih Muslim, 9/105)[7]

Aside from that, a lack of religious education causes some families to be uncommitted to practising Islam's way of life, where they are more proud of the western way of life. For example, according to Islam, it is not permissible for boys and girls to sleep in the same room. The majority of fiqh scholars believe that when his children reach the age of ten, the father or guardian must separate their bedrooms. (Refer: al-Mausu'ah al-Fiqhiyyah al-Kuwaitiyyah 38/33)[8]

The boundaries of the father-daughter relationship must also be emphasised, as some modern families consider kissing and hugging between an adult daughter and her father to be normal. However, if there are no restrictions based on Islamic rules, it is possible that incest will occur. Imam Ibn Naja mentioned that kissing a mahram is permissible as long as it does not cause orgasm but the kiss should not be done on the mouth. (Refer to al-Iqna ’fi Fiqh Mazhab Imam Ahmad 160/3)[9]

Furthermore, wearing clothing that does not cover the aurat (seductive) while staying at home can contribute to incest. According to the Syafi'e school of thought, even if a woman's aurat in front of a mahram was between the navel and the knee, she should not expose the part of her body that could arouse orgasm in front of her mahram. This is due to the obligation that every Muslim has to leave everything that can cause slander. (Refer: al-Fiqh al-Manhaji, 1/125)[10]


Such incidents of fathers marrying their own daughters are examples of moral decay and a lack of religious appreciation. In Islam, the concept of mahram governs social relations between people who have blood ties, such as through breastfeeding or marriage. A person should not have a romantic relationship or marry among mahram. The increase in incest cases demonstrated that it is a serious crime that must be dealt with right away. In addition to punishing incestuous offenders, the importance of preventive action as taught by Islam should be emphasised in order to ensure the well-being of the community in this country.


[1] فصل في أركان النكاح  وهي خمسة صيغة وزوجة وزوج وولي وهما العاقدان وشاهدان وعلى الأخيرين وهما الولي

القول في شروط الزوجة ومما تركه من الأركان أيضا الزوجة وشرط فيها حل وتعيين وخلو من نكاح وعدة فلا يصح نكاح محرمة للخبر السابق ولا إحدى امرأتين للإبهام ولا منكوحة ولا معتدة من غيره لتعلق حق الغير بها

القول في شروط الزوج ومما تركه من الأركان أيضا الزوج وشرط فيه حل واختيار وتعيين وعلم بحل المرأة له فلا يصح نكاح محرم ولو بوكيل للخبر السابق

[2] ثم قال تعالى: {وَبَنَاتُكُم} [النساء: 23]، فبنتك المحرمة: كل أنثى انتسبَتْ إليك بالولادة من غير واسطة [أو] (2) وسائط، لا فرق بين أن تكون الوسائط ذكوراً، أو إناثاً، أو مختلطين، فيدخل تحت ذلك بنات الصلب، وبنات البنين، وبنات البنات، وإن سفلن.



[5] وَأَعْظَمُ الزِّنَا عَلَى الْإِطْلَاقِ الزِّنَا بِالْمَحَارِمِ

وَعُلِمَ مِنْ ذَلِكَ أَيْضًا أَنَّ الزِّنَا لَهُ مَرَاتِبُ : فَهُوَ بِأَجْنَبِيَّةٍ لَا زَوْجَ لَهَا عَظِيمٌ ، وَأَعْظَمُ مِنْهُ بِأَجْنَبِيَّةٍ لَهَا زَوْجٌ ، وَأَعْظَمُ مِنْهُ بِمَحْرَمٍ

[6] ونسب الولد من أمه ثابت في كل حالات الولادة شرعية أو غيرشرعية، أم نسب الولد من أبيه، فلا يثبت إلا من طريق الزواج الصحيح أو الفاسد، أو الوطء بشبهة، أو الإقرار بالنسب، وأبطل الإسلام ما كان في الجاهلية من إلحاق الأولاد عن طريق الزنا، فقال صلّى الله عليه وسلم : «الولد للفراش، وللعاهر الحجر» (1) ومعناه أن الولد يلحق الأب الذي له زوجية صحيحة، علماً بأن الفراش هو المرأة في رأي الأكثر، وقد يعبر به عن حالة الافتراش، وأما الزنا فلا يصلح سبباً لإثبات النسب، وإنما يستحق الزاني العاهر الرجم أو الطرد بالحجارة.

[7] وَكَذَا ‌يَجُوزُ ‌لِكُلِّ ‌هَؤُلَاءِ ‌الْخَلْوَةُ ‌بِهَا ‌وَالنَّظَرُ ‌إِلَيْهَا ‌مِنْ ‌غَيْرِ ‌حَاجَةٍ ‌وَلَكِنْ ‌لَا ‌يَحِلُّ ‌النَّظَرُ ‌بِشَهْوَةٍ ‌لِأَحَدٍ ‌مِنْهُمْ ‌هَذَا ‌مَذْهَبُ ‌الشَّافِعِيِّ ‌وَالْجُمْهُورِ

[8] ذَهَبَ جُمْهُورُ الْفُقَهَاءِ إِلَى أَنَّهُ يَجِبُ التَّفْرِيقُ بَيْنَ الصِّبْيَانِ فِي الْمَضَاجِعِ وَهُمْ أَبْنَاءُ عَشْرٍ

[9]‌ولا ‌بأس ‌للقادم ‌من ‌سفر ‌بتقبيل ذوات المحارم إذا لم يخف على نفسه لكن لا يفعله على الفم بل الجبهة والرأس

[10]وأما عند الرجال المحارم لها: فما بين السرة ‌والركبة، أي فيجوز لها أن تبدي سائر أطراف جسمها أمامهم بشرط أمن الفتنة وإلا فلا يجوز ذلك أيضاً

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