Assalamualaikum. What is the difference between taufik and hidayah?
Waalaikumussalam wrt. Wbt.
Alhamdulillah, praise and thanks to Allah for the countless blessings He has blessed us all with. Blessings and salutations to the Prophet Muhammad PBUH, his wives, his family, companions and all those that follow his teachings to the day of judgement.
Allah SWT states:
إِنَّكَ لَا تَهْدِي مَنْ أَحْبَبْتَ وَلَـٰكِنَّ اللَّـهَ يَهْدِي مَن يَشَاءُ ۚ وَهُوَ أَعْلَمُ بِالْمُهْتَدِينَ
“Indeed, [O Muhammad], you do not guide whom you like, but Allah guides whom He wills. And He is most knowing of the [rightly] guided.”
Surah al-Qasas (56)
Ibn Kathir said: “Allah SWT said to His Messenger PBUH: “Indeed, you do not guide whom you like,”, means that it is not your business. However, it is your obligation to convey and Allah SWT is the One who guides whomever He wills. (See Tafsir al-Quran al-'Azim, 10/473)
Our teacher Fadilatu al-Syeikh Muhammad bin Muhammad al-Mukhtar al-Syanqiti said: “Hidayatu al-Taufiq is specific for Allah SWT not given to the prophets sent or nearby angels. Even the Prophet Noah himself was unable to guide his son and the Prophet Abraham his father – even to their own son and father.”
Imam Ibn Rajab al-Hanbali divided guidance (hidayah) into two:
- Hidayah which is mujmal, means hidayah in Islam and iman (faith), this is a gift from Allah to every Muslim.
- Specific hidayah is hidayah which is specific in learning the branches of iman and Islam and His help to practise them all. Hidayah is a necessity for every Muslim day and night. (See Jami’ al-‘Ulum wa al-Hikam, pg. 225)
In another verse, Allah SWT recorded the words of the Prophet Syu’aib AS:
وَمَا تَوْفِيقِي إِلَّا بِاللَّـهِ
And my success is not but through Allah.
Surah Hud (88)
Syeikh al-Maraghi said: “Taufik means success and accomplishment in worship or a good effort. This can happen when a person does something or put an effort to attain the success or accomplishment that he wants, at the same time preparing reasons or ways for him to attain it. All of this are only from Allah SWT.” (See Tafsir al-Maraghi, 6/3250)
Ibnu Qayyim said, taufiq is the iradat (will) of Allah that is from Him for His slaves to do good, given the permission to do what He loves, encouraged by love towards Him.
According to Jauharah Tauhid, the meaning of taufik is something created by Allah SWT to motivate a person to do good if it is something exists in himself.
In other words, hidayah al-taufiq means Allah guides his heart so that he is able to do any form of good and obedience. Thus, we state, hidayah is general while taufiq is specific according to the Quranic evidences both taufiq and hidayah belong to Allah SWT.
Hence, we found the truth of hidayah and taufiq belong to Allah SWT and it is wajib for us to ask from Him. We end with the mukadimah of the sermon of the Prophet PBUH to the people:
كانَ رسولُ اللَّهِ يقولُ في خُطبتِهِ ، يحمدُ اللَّهَ ويثني عليْهِ بما هوَ أَهلُهُ ثمَّ يقولُ من يَهدِهِ اللَّهُ فلا مضلَّ لَهُ ومن يضللْهُ فلا هاديَ لَهُ
The Messenger of Allah (ﷺ), while delivering the sermon' to the people, praised Allah, and lauded Him for what He deserves, and would then say: “He whom Allah guides aright, there is none to mislead him, and he who is led astray, there is none to guide him (aright),”
Sahih Muslim (867) and Sunan al-Nasaie (1578)
We close with the following du’a to Allah SWT:
اللَّهُمَّ اهْدِنَا فِيمَنْ هَدَيْتَ ، وَعَافِنَا فِيمَنْ عَافَيْتَ ، وَتَوَلَّنَا فِيمَنْ تَوَلَّيْتَ ، وَبَارِكْ لَنَا فِيمَا أَعْطَيْتَ ، وَقِنَا شَرَّ مَا قَضَيْتَ
“O Allah, guide me among those whom You have guided, pardon me among those You have pardoned, turn to me in friendship among those on whom You have turned in friendship, and bless me in what You have bestowed, and save me from the evil of what You have decreed.”
Sunan Abu Daud (1425), al-Tirmizi (464), al-Nasaie (1745), Ibn Majah (1178) and Ahmad (1718)