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al kafi 1147


Assalamualaikum SS Dato’ Seri Mufti, I want to ask, what is the ruling of broadcasting recitations other than the adhan such as the recitation of the Quran, zikr and qasidah. Hope for an explanation from you. Thank you.



Waalaikumussalam. Alhamdulillah, praise and thanks to Allah for the many countless blessings He has blessed us all with. Blessings and salutations to the Prophet Muhammad PBUH, his wives, his family, companions and all those that follow his teachings to the day of judgement.

Adhan Before the Time of Prayer

The original ruling for the adhan is that it is sanctioned to be called out when the time for the obligatory prayer starts. A hadith from Malik bin Huwairis RA, the Prophet PBUH said:

وَإِذَا حَضَرَتِ الصَّلاَةُ فَلْيُؤَذِّنْ لَكُمْ أَحَدُكُمْ

“And when the stated time for the prayer becomes due, then one of you should pronounce its call (i.e. the Adhan),”

Sahih al-Bukhari (6008)

However, it is permissible to call out the adhan before the time of prayer and this is specifically for Subuh prayer. The majority of scholars state the following hadith as the evidence of calling out the adhan before Subuh. From Ibn Umar, the Prophet PBUH said:

إِنَّ بِلاَلاً يُؤَذِّنُ بِلَيْلٍ فَكُلُوا وَاشْرَبُوا حَتَّى يُؤَذِّنَ ابْنُ أُمِّ مَكْتُومٍ

“Bilal pronounces the Adhan when it is still night (before dawn), so eat and drink till the next Adhan is pronounced (or till you hear Ibn Um Maktum's Adhan).”

Sahih Muslim (1092)

Imam al-Nawawi in his commentaries stated: “It is recommended to call out the adhan twice, first before dawn and then after dawn.” (Refer Syarah al-Nawawi ala Muslim, 7/202)

The valid condition to call out the adhan is when the time for obligatory prayer starts and it is invalid if it is called out before the time of prayer, except for the adhan for Subuh prayer. According to the opinion of Imam Malik, Imam Syafie’, Imam Ahmad and Abu Yusuf, it is permissible to call out the adhan before the time of prayer. Imam Syafie’, Imam Hanbali, and Abu Yusuf state the time to call out the adhan before Subuh is at in the middle of the night and according to madhhab Maliki at two third of the end of the night before the time for Subuh. (Refer al-Mausua’h al-Fiqhiyah al-Kuwaitiah: 2/363)

In madhhab Hanafi, Imam al-Kasani state in his book: “The purpose of the adhan is to call out to the people and the sign that the time of obligatory prayer has started and when it is call out for a purpose that contradict its true purpose, such as calling it out before its time is a deceiving, treacherous and irresponsible act. The reason is, calling out the adhan before the time for Subuh prayer will disturb people who are sleeping and those who performed tahajjud in the beginning of night. And this action is makruh (undesirable).” (Refer Bada'i al-Sana'i fi Tartib al-Shara'i, 1/155)

We cite the opinion issued by Darul Ifta’ Misriyah regarding the ruling of calling out the adhan half an hour earlier than the time for Subuh:

“The practise of this sunnah must consider and celebrate the situation of the people living in the area; whether it will have a negative effect or harm the religion. Furthermore, the purpose of it is to inform the people. It is the same as calling others for breaking fast, qiamullail and others. It is called out to a degree that the purpose of it is fulfilled and not excessively that it results in people feeling uncomfortable and distressed with it.” (Refer Dar Ifta’ Misriyah, Fatwa no.317)

The same applies for tasbih and zikr, according to the opinion of Ibn Rajab al-Hanbali in his commentaries: “Indeed, zikr and tasbih broadcasted loudly at the ned of the night is permissible, for its purpose is to wake people up. There are some scholars that contradicts this opinion and state that it is bid’ah, one of them are Abu al-Farj Ibn al-Jauzi.” (Refer Fathul al-Bari li Ibn Rajab, 5/333)


It has been a custom for the Malay community in certain places to play and broadcast the recitation of the Quran or zikr using megaphones or speakers in mosques and surau before calling out the adhan. Coming back to the question, it can be concluded that it is permissible to use speakers to broadcast zikr in a short time before the adhan with a low volume. However, it is best to call out the first adhan (before the adhan for Subuh prayer) according to the majority of scholars, following the sunnah.

Furthermore, the mosque’s committee should play their role in getting the response from the people living in the area; whether it is appropriate in their place and situation. Al-Quran taught us to be moderate in reciting our supplication and praying as to not disturb our neighbours. Allah SWT state:

وَلَا تَجْهَرْ بِصَلَاتِكَ وَلَا تُخَافِتْ بِهَا وَابْتَغِ بَيْنَ ذَٰلِكَ سَبِيلًا

“And do not recite [too] loudly in your prayer or [too] quietly but seek between that an [intermediate] way.”

Surah al-Isra’ (110)

Once again, we would like to reiterate, fiqh celebrate the people, especially the Muslim ummah so that when they are performing worship, they will feel comfortable and undisturbed in maintaining the harmony in society. At the same time, following the teachings of the Prophet PBUH in our daily lives.