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 AlKafi 1152



Everything that happened are bound to the will of humans and fate of Allah. Let’s say A killed B. How much is A’s will to kill B and how much is it happened due to the will of Allah? What if Allah already state that the killing will take place since azali (existing from eternity)?


Alhamdulillah, praise and thanks to Allah for the countless blessings He has blessed us all with. Blessings and salutations to the Prophet Muhammad PBUH, his wives, his family, companions and all those that follow his teachings to the day of judgement.

By principle, everything that happened in this world shall never escape Allah SWT’s qadha’ and qadar. It happened as firstly stated in the azali. Allah SWT says:

مَا أَصَابَ مِن مُّصِيبَةٍ فِي الْأَرْضِ وَلَا فِي أَنفُسِكُمْ إِلَّا فِي كِتَابٍ مِّن قَبْلِ أَن نَّبْرَأَهَا ۚ إِنَّ ذَٰلِكَ عَلَى اللَّـهِ يَسِيرٌ

No disaster strikes upon the earth or among yourselves except that it is in a register before We bring it into being - indeed that, for Allah, is easy –

Surah al-Hadid (22)

Here, it is best for us to bring the hadith regarding qadha’ and qadar:

يَا غُلاَمُ إِنِّي أُعَلِّمُكَ كَلِمَاتٍ احْفَظِ اللَّهَ يَحْفَظْكَ احْفَظِ اللَّهَ تَجِدْهُ تُجَاهَكَ إِذَا سَأَلْتَ فَاسْأَلِ اللَّهَ وَإِذَا اسْتَعَنْتَ فَاسْتَعِنْ بِاللَّهِ وَاعْلَمْ أَنَّ الأُمَّةَ لَوِ اجْتَمَعَتْ عَلَى أَنْ يَنْفَعُوكَ بِشَيْءٍ لَمْ يَنْفَعُوكَ إِلاَّ بِشَيْءٍ قَدْ كَتَبَهُ اللَّهُ لَكَ وَلَوِ اجْتَمَعُوا عَلَى أَنْ يَضُرُّوكَ بِشَيْءٍ لَمْ يَضُرُّوكَ إِلاَّ بِشَيْءٍ قَدْ كَتَبَهُ اللَّهُ عَلَيْكَ

“'O boy! I will teach you a statement: Be mindful of Allah and He will protect you. Be mindful of Allah and you will find Him before you. When you ask, ask Allah, and when you seek aid, seek Allah's aid. Know that if the entire creation were to gather together to do something to benefit you- you would never get any benefit except that Allah had written for you. And if they were to gather to do something to harm you- you would never be harmed except that Allah had written for you.’”

Jami’ al-Tirmidhi (2516)

Imam al-Nawawi in Syarah Sahih Muslim presented his comment as the following:

Al-Khattabi said. “Many people think that the meaning of qadha’ and qadar is Allah SWT forcing His servants on what is stated and fated by Him. Such thing is not like what we thought. But the meaning of qadar is, Allah SWT tells due to His knowledge before the happening of the action as fated by Allah SWT and create those actions of humans whether they are good or bad.” (Refer: Syarah al-Nawawi ala  Muslim, 1/155)

This is the stand of Ahl Sunnah wal Jamaah. Different from the stand of Jabarites who said that all human actions whether within his effort or beyond it, all is decided and fated by Allah SWT, humans have absolutely no power in this matter, as stated by al-Syahristani:

“All actions of humans happened according to the fate and will of Allah SWT, because the one who create all human actions is in fact Allah SWT. Humans have not even a slightest part towards his own doings, that even one’s faith and kufr is also bound with Allah’s fate and will”. (Refer: Al-Milal Wa Al-Nihal, 1/87)

At the same time, we should understand the attribute of ‘iradah takwiniyah and ‘iradah tasyri’iyyah for Allah SWT:

What is meant by iradah takwiniyah (Allah’s will in creating something) is, Allah SWT decide first on something due to His iradah before the action takes place and Allah SWT knows about it first. Different from the opinion of some philosophers who said that Allah knows something only after it took place.

إِنَّمَا قَوْلُنَا لِشَيْءٍ إِذَا أَرَدْنَاهُ أَن نَّقُولَ لَهُ كُن فَيَكُونُ

Indeed, Our word to a thing when We intend it is but that We say to it, "Be," and it is.

Surah al-Nahl (40)

Every events happened in this world are bound with iradah takwiniyah. It is impossible for Allah SWT to decide on something if He do not know about it first.

While what is meant by iradah tasyri’iyah is Allah SWT’s will in stating through His will on Shara’ rulings which is wajib for every mukallaf.

Therefore, it is wajib for each Muslim to bow to iradah tasyri’iyah of Allah SWT to receive good rewards from Him and His blessings as mentioned in His saying:

فَمَن يَعْمَلْ مِثْقَالَ ذَرَّةٍ خَيْرًا يَرَهُ

So whoever does an atom's weight of good will see it,

Surah al-Zalzalah (7)

Concluding from several dalil of al-Quran and hadis, it is clear to us that human actions are referred to him when we see it through the aspect of ikhtiar and effort of the human himself with the power within him. In this matter, humans are responsible upon his actions. However, when we look at the success of the action, it is due to Allah SWT’s fate and will.


The conclusion of this question is, humans cannot account his actions totally to Allah SWT, because there are differences between actions which is within the effort and power of humans which is said as ‘ikhtiari (اختياري) and humans hold responsible upon that, like killing, drinking intoxicants, gambling and etc.

Another actions of humans which is not due to their effort and is not accounted upon him is said as ijbari (إجباري) like sneezing, yawning, being sleepy and the like. However, Allah SWT’s mercy is so vast that He bestows humans with intellect to know which is hak (true) and bathil (false) as well as accepting His command then abide by it and Allah SWT gives him rewards due to it. The same goes for humans with their faculty of intellect will be able to understand Allah SWT’s prohibitions then abandon it, and Allah SWT will grant him with rewards.

May we will be able to use our intellect to accept the truth and follow it in full obedience.

Wallahu a’lam.