Assalamualaikum SS Dato’ Mufti. The mosque in my residential area is undergoing renovation, hence, we cannot pray in the mosque. My question is, is it permissible for us to perform the Friday prayer in the mosque’s yard or other open land areas in its vicinity? Is it valid to perform the Friday prayer in this way?
Hope for an explanation from Dato’ Mufti. Thank you.
Alhamdulillah, praise and thanks to Allah for the countless blessings He has blessed us all with. Blessings and salutations to the Prophet Muhammad PBUH, his wives, his family, companions and all those that follow his teachings to the day of judgement.
In Islam, it is obligatory for every Muslim from among man, who has reached puberty, with sound mind and is residing in a certain place without any illness to perform Friday prayer in congregation. This is in accordance with evidences from the Quran, hadith and ijma’ (consensus of scholars). Allah SWT state in the Quran:
يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا إِذَا نُودِيَ لِلصَّلَاةِ مِن يَوْمِ الْجُمُعَةِ فَاسْعَوْا إِلَىٰ ذِكْرِ اللَّـهِ وَذَرُوا الْبَيْعَ ۚ ذَٰلِكُمْ خَيْرٌ لَّكُمْ إِن كُنتُمْ تَعْلَمُونَ
“O you who have believed, when [the adhan] is called for the prayer on the day of Jumu'ah [Friday], then proceed to the remembrance of Allah and leave trade. That is better for you, if you only knew.”
Surah al-Jumuah (9)
Imam al-Sarakhsi commented on the above verse stating that the commandment of quickly proceeding for Friday prayer has no other meaning than obligatory, and the commandment to leave trade which is originally permissible also proves its obligation. (Refer al-Mabsuth lil Sarkhasi, 2:21)
The same is stated by the Prophet PBUH:
الْجُمُعَةُ حَقٌّ وَاجِبٌ عَلَى كُلِّ مُسْلِمٍ فِي جَمَاعَةٍ إِلاَّ أَرْبَعَةً عَبْدٌ مَمْلُوكٌ أَوِ امْرَأَةٌ أَوْ صَبِيٌّ أَوْ مَرِيض
“The Friday prayer in congregation is a necessary duty for every Muslim, with four exceptions; a slave, a woman, a boy, and a sick person.”
Sunan Abu Daud (1:644)
Furthermore, the scholars have reached a consensus that it is obligatory for Muslim man, who has reached puberty, residing in a certain place and do not experience any illness or reasons that permit him to leave his Friday prayer. (Refer Mausu’ah al-Fiqhiyyah al-Kuwaitiyyah, 27:193). According to the above evidences, it is clear that Friday prayer is obligatory to be performed in a congregation.
However, although it is obligated to perform the Friday prayer, there is no condition that it must be performed in a mosque according to the opinion of the majority of scholars. This is the opinion of scholars from madhab Hanafi, Syafie and Hanbali; Friday prayer should be performed in a mosque is not included as one of the conditions of Friday prayer. (Refer Fatawa Syar’iyah Wa Buhuth Islamiah, 1:274)
The same is stated by Imam al-Nawawi RA in his book, al-Majmu’ Syarh al-Muhazzab, where he said:
وَ لَا يُشْتَرَطُ إِقَامَتُهَا فِي مَسْجِدٍ وَ لَكِنْ تَجُوزُ فِي سَاحَةٍ مَكْشُوفَةٍ..وَ سَوَاءٌ صَلُّوهَا فِي رُكْنٍ أَمْ سَاحَةٍ -وَ لَوْ انْهَدَمَتْ أَبْنِيَةُ القَرْيَةِ أَوْ البَلْدَةِ- فَأَقَامَ أَهْلُهَا عَلَى عِمَارَتِهَا لَزِمَتْهُمْ الجُمُعَةُ فِيهَا سَوَاءٌ كَانُوا فِي سَقَائِفِ وَ مَظَالٍ أَمْ لَا. لِأَنَّهُ مَحَلُّ الاسْتِيطَانِ.
There is no condition to perform it (Friday prayer) in a mosque, it is permissible to be performed in open spaces… whether they perform it in a corner or in the middle of the open space – if the building is destroyed, then the residents of the place come together again, then it is obligatory for them to perform Friday prayer whether it is under a roof or not. The reason is, it is now a place of residence. (Refer al-Majmu’ Syarh al-Muhazzab, 4:501)
Furthermore, Imam al-Syaukani stated in his book, Nail al-Awtar Syarh Muntaqa al-Akhbar:
قَالَ أَبُو حَنِيفَةَ وَ الشَافِعِي وَ سَائِر العُلَمَاءِ: إِنَّ المَسْجِدَ لَيْسَ شَرْطًا لِإِقَامَةِ الجُمُعَةِ إِذْ لَمْ يُفَصِّلْ دَلِيلُ وُجُوبِهَا
Imam Abu Hanifah, Imam al-Syafie and most scholars hold the opinion that a mosque is not a condition to perform Friday prayer, the reason is, there is no Quranic or prophetic evidence that mentioned it needs to be performed in a mosque. (Refer Nail al-Awtar lil Syaukani, 3:279)
Meanwhile, Imam Malik sets a condition of the existence of a mosque for Friday prayer to be performed. Hence, it is invalid for residents to demolish their mosque in their residential area and let it be an unroofed place for them to perform Friday prayer. (Refer Fatawa Syar’iyah Wa Buhuth Islamiah, 1:274 / Bidayatul Mujtahid Wa Nihayatul Muqtasid, 2:336). However, we are inclined towards the majority of scholars’ opinion stating that it is not a condition of Friday prayer to be performed in a roofed mosque.
According to the above discussion, we would like to state that it is not a condition for Friday prayer to be performed in a mosque. Furthermore, it is permissible to be performed in mosque’s yard or other open land according to the majority of scholars’ opinion. Hence, the ruling of performing congregational Friday prayer in a mosque’s yard or open land is valid and will be rewarded by Allah SWT the same as if it is performed inside a mosque.
May Allah SWT give us understanding and guidance for us to be sincere in worshipping Him.