Assalamualaikum Dato’ Seri SS Mufti. I have a concern. In my travels recently, before starting on my journey, I was in junub state (major hadath). Hence, I perform the obligatory bath quickly and hastily in the R&R (rest and recreation) before performing my prayer. My question is, after I reached my destination, is it permissible for me to repeat my obligatory bath so that I can perform it thoroughly to ensure that it is really valid?
Hope for an explanation from Dato’ Mufti, thank you.
Alhamdulillah, praise and thanks to Allah for the countless blessings He has blessed us all with. Blessings and salutations to the Prophet Muhammad PBUH, his wives, his family, companions and all those that follow his teachings to the day of judgement.
Allah SWT commanded His slaves to perform the obligatory bath for those who are in major hadith before performing certain types of worship, such as tawaf, prayer, holding the mushaf of al-Quran, iktikaf in the mosque and others. Allah SWT state:
يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لَا تَقْرَبُوا الصَّلَاةَ وَأَنتُمْ سُكَارَىٰ حَتَّىٰ تَعْلَمُوا مَا تَقُولُونَ وَلَا جُنُبًا إِلَّا عَابِرِي سَبِيلٍ حَتَّىٰ تَغْتَسِلُوا ۚ
“O you who have believed, do not approach prayer while you are intoxicated until you know what you are saying or in a state of janabah, except those passing through [a place of prayer], until you have washed [your whole body].”
Surah al-Nisa’ (43)
وَإِن كُنتُمْ جُنُبًا فَاطَّهَّرُوا ۚ
“And if you are in a state of janabah, then purify yourselves.”
Surah al-Maidah (6)
Scholars have stated that there are three obligatory valid conditions for obligatory bath, which are:
- Removing any najis from one’s body
- Wiping water to every part of the body including the hairs on the body
(Refer Matan Ghoyah wa al-Taqrib: 21)
If we review the obligatory valid conditions of obligatory bath, someone just need to make sure that he has removed any najis on his body and wiped water to all parts of his body with the intention of obligatory bath. If he fulfils these conditions, then his obligatory bath is valid and it is unnecessary for him to repeat it.
Thus, he must first ensure that the obligatory bath that he performed is valid, only then could he perform his prayer after he is no longer in an impure state. If he is certain about his pure state before he performed his prayer, then it is unnecessary for him to repeat his obligatory bath even if he performed it quickly and hastily in the first place.
The same goes if he is sure he has performed the obligatory bath, however afterwards, doubts came into his mind, as to whether it is still valid or not, the obligatory bath is still considered as valid. This is in accordance with Islamic legal maxim which states:
اليَقِينُ لَا يَزُولُ بِالشَّك
“Certainty is not abrogated by doubts.”
The same is stated in another maxim:
الأَصْلُ بَقَاْءُ مَا كَانَ عَلَى مَا كَان
“The ruling for something is in accordance with its original ruling,”
The above maxim means that unless there is something that abrogates the original ruling, then its original ruling still applies.
Furthermore, in a hadith narrated by Abu Hurairah RA, he said:
أُقِيْمَتِ الصَّلاَةُ وَ عُدِّلَتِ الصُّفُوْفُ قِيَامًا فَخَرَجَ إِلَيْنَا رَسُوْلُ اللهِ صلى الله عليه و سلم فَلَمَّا قَامَ فىِ مُصَلاَّهُ ذَكَرَ أَنَّهُ جُنُبٌ فَقَالَ لَنَا: مَكَانَكُمْ ثُمَّ رَجَعَ فَاغْتَسَلَ ثُمَّ خَرَجَ إِلَيْنَا وَ رَأْسُهُ يَقْطُرُ فَكَبَّرَ فَصَلَّيْنَا مَعَهُ
“Once the call (Iqama) for the prayer was announced and the rows were straightened. Allah's Messenger (ﷺ) came out; and when he stood up at his Musalla, he remembered that he was Junub. Then he ordered us to stay at our places and went to take a bath and then returned with water dropping from his head. He said, "Allahu-Akbar", and we all offered the prayer with him.”
Sahih al-Bukhari (275) and Sahih Muslim (605)
The above hadith shows that the Prophet PBUH perform his obligatory bath in a short amount of time while his companions waited for the Prophet PBUH. However, the Prophet PBUH performed it fulfilling all its requisites according to the observation of the companions of Prophet PBUH, where water drips from the Prophet PBUH’s head.
Moreover, the scholars did not state that the act of repeating one’s obligatory is a sunnah. Hanafiah and Syafiyyah scholars said that it is not sunnah but it is makruh to do so. Al-Hamawi, a scholar from madhab Hanafi, in his book Ghamz ‘Uyun al-Basair said:
وَ يُكْرَهُ تَجْدِيدُ الغُسْلِ مُطْلَقًا
“It is an absolute makruh to repeat one’s obligatory bath.” (Refer Ghamz ‘Uyun al-Basair, 4:75)
Whereas, Imam al-Nawawi in his book al-Majmu’ Syarh al-Muhazzab, states:
وَ أَمَّا تَجْدِيدُ الغُسْلِ فَالصَحِيحُ أَنَّهُ لَا يُسْتَحَبُّ
“As for repeating obligatory bath, then according to an authentic opinion is not sunnah.” (Refer al-Majmu’ Syarh al-Muhazzab, 1:494)
The reason is, the act of repeating an obligatory bath is included as being excessive in religion, adding something that should not be added.
Furthermore, if the act of an obligatory bath is due to one’s doubts, then he should try to avoid this feeling, for doubts come from shaytan. Allah SWT state in the Quran:
الَّذِي يُوَسْوِسُ فِي صُدُورِ النَّاسِ ﴿٥﴾ مِنَ الْجِنَّةِ وَالنَّاسِ
“Who whispers [evil] into the breasts of mankind - From among the jinn and mankind."
Surah al-Nas (5-6)
وَلَا رَيْبَ أَنَّ الشَّيْطَانَ هُوَ الدَّاعِي إِلَى الوَسْوَاسِ : فَأَهْلُهُ قَدْ أَطَاعُوا الشَيْطَانَ ، وَلَبُّوا دَعْوَتَهُ ، وَاتَّبَعُوا أَمْرَهُ ، وَرَغِبُوا عَن اتِّبَاعِ سُنَّةِ رَسُولِ اللهِ صَلَّى اللهُ تَعَالَى عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ وَطَرِيقَتِهِ ، حَتَّى أَنَّ أَحَدَهُم لِيَرَى أَنَّهُ إِذَا تَوَضَّأَ وُضُوءَ رَسُولِ اللهِ صَلَّى اللهُ تَعاَلَى عَلَيهِ وَسَلَّمَ ، أَوْ اغْتَسَلَ كِاغْتِسَالِهِ ، لَمْ يَطْهُرْ وَلَمْ يَرْتَفِعْ حَدَثُهُ وَلَوْلَا العُذْرُ بِالجَهْلِ لَكَانَ هَذَا مَشَاقَةٌ لِلرَّسُولِ
“Undoubtedly, indeed, the shaytan is the source of doubts. Those who believe in their doubts have obeyed the shaytan, listening and following the shaytan. They turn away from the sunnah and road of the Prophet PBUH; where even when they had taken their ablution and bath the same way as the Prophet PBUH, he still feels as though he is unclean and impure. If he is not forgiven due to his ignorance, surely he is considered as someone who went against the Prophet PBUH.” (Refer Ighathat al-Lahfan Min Masaid al-Shaytan: 123)
According to the above discussion, in our opinion, repeating one’s obligatory bath that is done quickly or hastily is not sunnah, but it is makruh (undesirable). The reason is, if the obligatory bath is valid, there’s no need for it to be repeated. Furthermore, for someone whose intention is to perform worship, he must be certain of his pure state. If not, it is obligatory for him to purify himself correctly first.
May Allah SWT give us guidance in practising His commandments the best we could. Amin.