What is the ruling of drinking the blood of the Prophet PBUH?
Alhamdulillah, praise and thanks to Allah for the countless blessings He has blessed us all with. Blessings and salutations to the prophet Muhammad PBUH, his family, companions and all those that follow his teachings to the day of judgement.
Before we answer the above question, it is generally known that blood is najis (impure). This is discussed in the books of Fiqh under the chapter of najis. This is in accordance with the saying of Allah SWT:
حُرِّمَتْ عَلَيْكُمُ الْمَيْتَةُ وَالدَّمُ وَلَحْمُ الْخِنزِيرِ وَمَا أُهِلَّ لِغَيْرِ اللَّـهِ بِهِ
Prohibited to you are dead animals, blood, the flesh of swine, and that which has been dedicated to other than Allah
Surah al-Maidah (3)
Among the verses of al-Quran which clearly states the impurity of blood is:
The saying of Allah SWT:
قُل لَّا أَجِدُ فِي مَا أُوحِيَ إِلَيَّ مُحَرَّمًا عَلَىٰ طَاعِمٍ يَطْعَمُهُ إِلَّا أَن يَكُونَ مَيْتَةً أَوْ دَمًا مَّسْفُوحًا أَوْ لَحْمَ خِنزِيرٍ فَإِنَّهُ رِجْسٌ
Say, "I do not find within that which was revealed to me [anything] forbidden to one who would eat it unless it be a dead animal or blood spilt out or the flesh of swine - for indeed, it is impure
Surah al-An’am (45)
According to Sheikh Wahbah al-Zuhayli in his tafsir, among the reason of prohibition for blood is because it is a suitable place for these microorganisms to thrive and breed. [See: Tafsir al-Munir, 80/8]. Hence, it is clear to us that blood is najis and this is strengthened by the statement of Imam al-Nawawi (676 H) that:
أَنَّ الدَّمَ نَجِسٌ وَهُوَ بِإِجْمَاعِ الْمُسْلِمِينَ
“Indeed, blood is najis according to the scholarly consensus (ijma’)” [See: al-Minhaj Syarah Sahih Muslim, 200/3]
Based on the above question, does the Prophet PBUH’s blood follows the same rule as other men’s blood? Before we answer this question, here, we state some narrations on the Companions who are said to drink the Prophet PBUH’s blood.
Narrated by Abdullah bin Zubair RA where he came to meet the Prophet PBUH while he is cupping. When he finishes the cupping, the Prophet PBUH gave him the blood from the cupping to him while saying:
يَا عَبْدَ اللَّهِ، اذْهَبْ بِهَذَا الدَّمِ فَأَهْرِقْهُ حَيْثُ لَا يَرَاكَ أَحَدٌ ، فَلَمَّا بَرَزْتُ عَنْ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ عَمَدْتُ إِلَى الدَّمِ فَحَسَوْتُهُ، فَلَمَّا رَجَعْتُ إِلَى النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ قَالَ: مَا صَنَعْتَ يَا عَبْدَ اللَّهِ؟ قَالَ: جَعَلْتُهُ فِي مَكَانٍ ظَنَنْتُ أَنَّهُ خَافٍ عَلَى النَّاسِ، قَالَ: فَلَعَلَّكَ شَرِبْتَهُ؟ قُلْتُ: نَعَمْ، قَالَ: وَمَنْ أَمَرَكَ أَنْ تَشْرَبَ الدَّمَ؟ وَيْلٌ لَكَ مِنَ النَّاسِ، وَوَيْلٌ لِلنَّاسِ مِنْكَ
“Go and hide it (this blood) from the humans. Then, I went there and drank the blood. After that, I came to meet the Propjet PBUH again, then he asked: “What have you done?” He answered: “I hid the blood at a place cannot be seen by humans”. The Prophet PBUH said: “By any chance, did you drink it?”. He answered: “Yes, I drank it.” [See: al-Mustadrak, 638/3]
Imam Ibn al-Qayyim cited a story in which Malik bin Sinan, a father of Abu Sai’d al-Khudri who drank the blood of the Prophet PBUH during the battle of Uhud. [See: Zad al-Ma’ad, 177/3]. This story is also said as sahih by Sheikh Sofiy al-Rahman al-Mubarakfuri in his book al-Rahiq al-Makhtum:
وَامْتَصَّ مالِك بِنْ سِنَان والد أَبِي سَعِيْد الخُدْرِي الدَّمَ مِنْ وَجْنَتِهِ حَتَّى أَنْقَاه. فَقَالَ: مُجَّهُ. فَقَالَ: وَاللهِ لَا أَمُجُّهُ أَبَدًا. ثُمَّ أَدْبَرَ يُقَاتِل
Malik bin Sinan which is the father of Abu Sai’d al-Khudri sucked the blood from the cheek of the Prophet PBUH and swallowed it. Then the Prophet PBUH said: “Spit them out!”. He answered: “By Allah’s name, I will not spit them out.” Then he continued with the battle. [See: al-Rahiq al-Makhtum, 247/1]
There are several narrations which stated that the Companions drank the Prophet PBUH’s blood like the story of Safinah the slave of the Prophet PBUH, Salim Abu Hind al-Hijam, a Quraish man and etc. However, these narrations are dhaif (weak) and are refuted by the scholars on its authenticity. This includes the narration from Malik bin Sinan RA because this story is mursal as stated by al-Hafiz Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani (852 H). However, the story of Abdullah bin Zubair is the strongest (with origin) when compared to other narrations as it is supported by syawahid (supported narrations from different sanads) to support the story.
After knowing several stories of the actions of the Companions who drank the Prophet PBUH’s blood, to answer the question of either the Prophet PBUH’s blood is najis the same as other humans’ blood, here we state several opinions of the scholars on this:
- First: The blood of the Prophet PBUH is pure and it is included under the chapter of the Prophet PBUH’s specializations (only specialized for the Prophet PBUH and not to any other man) and the scholars claim on the purity of the Prophet PBUH’s blood by the story of Abdullah bin Zubair RA. This is mentioned by Imam al-Suyuthi (911 H) in the book al-Khasais al-Kubra [See: al-Khasais al-Kubra, 440/2]. Besides, Imam al-Qadhi ‘Iyadh also stated the same thing in his book [See: al-Syifa, 64/1]. Imam al-Khatib al-Syarbini (977 H) brings an opinion from Abu Ja’far al-Tirmizi that the Prophet PBUH’s blood is pure. [See: al-Mughni al-Muhtaj, 233/1]
- Second: The Prophet PBUH’s blood is najis the same as the blood of other humans. This is because the scholars understand this story of Abdullah bin Zubair RA by stating that the doing of Abdullah bin Zubair RA was done without the knowledge of the Prophet PBUH and he asked Abdullah to throw it away and not to drink it. While the action of Abdullah is not a command from the Prophet PBUH, in fact, comes from he himself (Abdullah bin Zubair himself).
Looking at both above opinions, we are inclined to the first opinion which states that the blood of the Prophet PBUH is pure and not najis because it is included under the chapter of the Prophet PBUH’s Specializations. In addition, the Prophet PBUH is not the same as other humans as he is the chosen one and the noblest creation of Allah SWT when compared to any other creations.
In conclusion, in understanding the ruling of impurity of the Prophet PBUH’s blood, we may divide it into two opinions as stated above. If we choose to state that the Prophet PBUH’s blood is pure, then it is included under his specializations. While if we state it as najis, then it is not wrong as it is the opinion of some scholars. Lastly, the Prophet PBUH is a noble man and we as his ummah are obligated to follow his example in everything we did because he is the best example. May Allah SWT make us from among the ummah of Prophet Muhammad PBUH who succeed in attaining his syafa’ah in the hereafter. Amin.