Assalamualaikum ustaz. How are you? Hope that you are in great health. I have a question. I am a bilal of a mosque. One day, when I was calling out the adhan, I accidentally farted. Should I just continue calling out the adhan or stop immediately to perform the ablution again? I hope for an explanation from ustaz.
Waalaikumussalam. Alhamdulillah, praise and thanks to Allah for the countless blessings He has blessed us all with. Blessings and salutations to the Prophet Muhammad PBUH, his wives, his family, companions and all those that follow his teachings to the day of judgement.
Adhan is one of the great eminences of Islam. In Islam, adhan is specific words called out to announce that the time of obligatory prayer has started. This is in accordance with a hadith from Malik bin al-Huwairith. He said:
أَتَيْتُ النَّبِىَّ -صلى الله عليه وسلم- أَنَا وَصَاحِبٌ لِى فَلَمَّا أَرَدْنَا الإِقْفَالَ مِنْ عِنْدِهِ قَالَ لَنَا إِذَا حَضَرَتِ الصَّلاَةُ فَأَذِّنَا ثُمَّ أَقِيمَا وَلْيَؤُمَّكُمَا أَكْبَرُكُمَا
“I came to the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) along with a companion of mine, and when we intended to return from him, he said: When there is time for prayer, announce prayer, pronounce Iqama, and the oldest amongst you should lead the prayer.”
Sahih Muslim (1570)
Imam al-Nawawi states that the above hadith is an evidence for the obligatory ruling of maintaining the calling out of adhan whether one is residing or travelling, for it is an eminence of Islam.
Although it may seem like a trivial matter, it is an important aspect as one of the eminences of Islam that should not be neglected. The Prophet PBUH himself, encouraged his ummah to be among those who calls out the adhan. This is stated in a hadith from Abu Hurairah RA, he said the Prophet PBUH said:
لَوْ يَعْلَمُ النَّاسُ مَا فِي النِّدَاءِ وَالصَّفِّ الْأَوَّلِ ثُمَّ لَمْ يَجِدُوا إِلَّا أَنْ يَسْتَهِمُوا عَلَيْهِ لَاسْتَهَمُوا وَلَوْ يَعْلَمُونَ مَا فِي التَّهْجِيرِ لَاسْتَبَقُوا إِلَيْهِ وَلَوْ يَعْلَمُونَ مَا فِي الْعَتَمَةِ وَالصُّبْحِ لَأَتَوْهُمَا وَلَوْ حَبْوًا
“If the people were to know what excellence is there in the Adhan and in the first row, and they could not (get these opportunities) except by drawing lots, they would have definitely done that. And if they were to know what excellence lies in joining the prayer in the first takbir (prayer), they would have vied with one another. And if they were to know what excellence lies in the night prayer and morning prayer, they would have definitely come even if crawling (on their knees).”
Sahih al-Bukhari (615) & Sahih Muslim (1009)
There are however, several conditions that should be fulfilled or the adhan that is called will be invalid. The conditions are as the following:
- Islam. The muezzin must be a Muslim.
- Use a loud voice
- The time for prayer has started
- The muezzin knows the time for the prayer
- The adhan must be continuous (muawalah)
- The adhan is called according to the set sequence
Thus, if any of the conditions is unfulfilled, then the adhan is invalid.
Coming back to the question asked, if someone farted while he is calling out the adhan, or his ablution become invalid, then the adhan is still valid. The reason is, being in a pure state is not among the valid conditions of adhan. Someone who call out the adhan without first taking his ablution, then the adhan is still valid but his action is makruh (undesirable). This is in accordance with the hadith of the Prophet PBUH:
إِنِّي كَرِهْتُ أَنْ أَذْكُرَ اللَّهَ إِلاَّ عَلَى طُهْرٍ
“I disliked remembering Allah except in the state of purification.”
Narrated by Ibnu Hibban (806)
Hence, if someone who is in the middle of calling out the adhan farted, then he can just continue the adhan and retake his ablution after the adhan. However, if he stopped and immediately retakes his ablution, then he has to call the adhan from the beginning again and not just continue from where he stopped.
Imam al-Nawawi cited the words of Imam al-Syafie where he states, if someone starts calling out the adhan when he is in a pure state, then his ablution is invalidated, he should just continue with the adhan and not stop the adhan. However, if he chooses to stop to retake his ablution, then he could resume the adhan where he stopped earlier but it is prioritized for him to start the adhan again.
Imam al-Nawawi continues his explanation stating that the opinion of the scholars of mazhab Syafie agreed that the muezzin should begin the adhan again and not resume his adhan so that the public will not assume that he is disrespecting the adhan. (Refer Al-Majmu’ Syarh Al-Muhazzab, 3/98)
It is the same if he went to retake his ablution, no one can continue the adhan. Al-Khatib al-Syarbini said:
“One of the conditions of adhan is it must be called out by just one muezzin. No one can continue an adhan of someone else, for if this happens, it will cause confusion.” (Refer Mughni Al-Muhtaj Ila Ma’rifah Ma’ani Alfaz Al-Minhaj, 1/136)
As a conclusion, if while you are calling out the adhan and you farted, then the adhan is still valid. Go and retake your ablution after the adhan is completed. However, if you stop to retake your ablution, then you should start calling out the adhan again from the beginning and not just resume the adhan. Furthermore, no one else is allowed to resume the adhan when you stopped to retake your ablution.
May Allah SWT give us the understanding in our religion. Wallhua’lam.