What is meant by Mawquf Hadith?
Alhamdulillah, praise and thanks to Allah for the countless blessings He has blessed us all with. Blessings and salutations to the Prophet Muhammad PBUH, his wives, his family, companions and all those that follow his teachings to the day of judgement.
Based on the presented question, the question is on mustholah hadith or named as ulum al-hadith. Mawquf hadith is one of the types of hadith related to the sanad.
The Definition of Mawquf Hadith
Imam al-Baiquniy in his manzhumah has given the definition of Mawquf Hadith as the following:
وَمَا أَضَفْتَهُ إِلَى الأَصْحَابِ مِنْ * قَوْلٍ وَفِعْلٍ فَهْوَ مَوْقُوفٌ زُكِنْ
“What is related to the ashab (the companions of the Prophet PBUH) from among the words or actions are named [Mawquf Hadith]”.
According to the definition given by Imam al-Baiquniy, mawquf hadith is a hadith which is related to the companions of the Prophet PBUH in terms of words, actions and its sanad is not related or connected to the Prophet PBUH.
Before this, we already explained on Munqathi’ Hadith in which its sanad stops at the Tabi’in or after them. However, Mawquf Hadith is a hadith which sanad stops at the Companions RA only and it does not reach to the Prophet PBUH. For that, this is the difference between these two terminologies.
The Definition of Sahabah
Sahabah (Companions) are each people who met the Prophet PBUH, believed in him and passed away while believing in Allah SWT. According to Imam Ibn Salah, what is famous among ahl al-hadith is that each Muslim who witnessed the Prophet PBUH is called as sahabah. While Imam al-Bukhari said that whoever befriended the Prophet PBUH or witnessed him among the Muslims are said as the sahabah.
The Example of Mawquf Hadith
Among the example of mawquf hadith is as the saying of Sayyidina Umar RA:
تَفَقَّهُوا قَبْلَ أَنْ تُسَوَّدُوا
“You should be a faqih or study before being elected as a leader”
The Ruling of Mawquf Hadith
Pertaining to mawquf hadith, the scholars divide it into two types:
- First: Each matter that is permitted or is capable for the mind to do ijtihad upon it cannot be made as hujjah unless the ijtihad is decided or being the same as other Companions. So, it becomes an ijma’.
- Second: Matters which have no place in ijtihad, for example, matters of the unseen. So, its ruling is marfu’ to the Prophet PBUH unless if it is known that the Companion took from ahl al-kitab (people of the book).
Is Mawquf Hadith named as Athar (أثر)?
We already know that mawquf hadith is a hadith related to the Companions whether by words, actions or taqrir. Therefore, some jurists (fuqaha’) named mawquf as athar and marfu’ as khabar (خبر).
- Imam al-Nawawi said: “For the muhaddith (ahl al-hadith), both of these are named as athar in which athar is generally used upon both marfu’ and mawquf.”
- Imam al-Hafiz Ibn Hajar said: “Some learned people specify athar for the Companions and those who lived after them. While khabar is for hadith which are marfu’ (hadith which sanad is connected to the Prophet PBUH)”
May this brief explanation give some benefit and understanding for us in science of hadith. Lastly, may Allah SWT give us understanding in religion as well as practicing it. Ameen.